The Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ) was originally created by Dr. Avi Sadeh and has been completed on over 150,000 infants and toddlers. It has been expanded and revised from its original form and has been widely used in studies throughout the world. An age-based norm-referenced scoring system has been developed. These norms are currently based on US data, with the intention of development of norms in other countries (see section below on translations).
Validation of the BISQ and BISQ-R has been published, including the following:
- Sadeh A. A brief screening questionnaire for infant sleep problems: Validation and findings for an Internet sample. Pediatrics. 2004;113:e570-e7.
- Mindell JA, Sadeh A, Wiegand B, How TH, Goh DY. Cross-cultural differences in infant and toddler sleep. Sleep Med. 2010;11:274-80.
- Sadeh A, Mindell JA, Luedtke K, Wiegand B. Sleep and sleep ecology in the first 3 years: a web-based study. J Sleep Res. 2009;18:60-73.
- Cassanello P, Díez-Izquierdo A, Gorina N, Matilla-Santander N, Martínez-Sanchez JM, Balaguer A. Adaptation and study of the measurement properties of a sleep questionnaire for infants and pre-school children. Anales de Pediatría (English Edition). 2018;89:230-7.
- Tikotzky L, Volkovich E. Infant nocturnal wakefulness: a longitudinal study comparing three sleep assessment methods. Sleep. 2019;42.
Support for the development of the norm-referenced scoring system is currently in press:
- Mindell JA, Gould R, Tikotzky L, Leichman E, & Walters R. (in press). Normative scoring system for the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire – Revised (BISQ-R).Sleep Medicine.
BISQ-R and BISQ-R SF
Two versions of the BISQ-R are provided:
- BISQ-R: The BISQ-R is the complete, expanded version and includes the 19 questions that comprise the scoring system.
- BISQ-R SF: The BISQ-R SF (short form) only includes the 19 scored questions.
Scores on each subscale and the total score are scaled from 0 to 100, with higher scores denoting better sleep quality, more positive perception of infant sleep, and parent behaviors that promote healthy and independent sleep.
- Infant Sleep (IS) subscale: 5 questions regarding sleep patterns: sleep onset latency, number and duration of night wakings, longest stretch of sleep, and total night sleep
- Parent Perception (PP) subscale: 3 questions regarding caregiver perceptions of bedtime difficulty, overnight sleep, and overall child sleep problems.
- Parent Behavior (PB) subscale: 11 questions about sleep ecology, including bedtime routine consistency, bedtime, parental behavior at time of sleep onset and following night wakings, and sleep locations at time of sleep onset and following night wakings.
- Total score (T): Average of the 3 subscale scores
BISQ-R data inputted into an excel file are to be uploaded through the BISQ-R scoring portal (bisqr.babysleep.com). A unique username will be provided for each research group.
An excel template for the BISQ-R and BISQ-R SF will be provided, which includes variable names and exact coding. Note that no identifying information should be included. Be sure to use non-identifiable information as each child’s identifier. If any identifying information is included, the file will be deleted.
Once the results have been uploaded, scores for each subscale (Infant Sleep, Parent Behavior, and Parent Perception) and the Total score will be provided in a downloadable excel file.
Translations of the BISQ-R
The BISQ and the BISQ-R have been translated into a number of languages. If you have a translated version, we would appreciate obtaining a copy so that we can share it with other researchers.
Requirements for any subsequent publications/presentations
Please note that any research or otherwise published summary for dissemination should include:
Methods section: Inclusion of reference to development and BISQ-R scoring in methods section: Mindell JA, Gould R, Tikotzky L, Leichman E, & Walters R. (in press). Normative scoring system for the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire – Revised (BISQ–R). Sleep Medicine.
No authorship is required or requested on any publications resulting from the use of the BISQ-R in approved projects, unless active involvement in the study by one of the authors is mutually agreed upon.
Note that submission of the BISQ-R data for scoring gives the right to use the data collected from a research project as part of aggregate data that may be used to update norms, create norms in other countries, and for independent publication (aggregated data only) by the Pediatric Sleep Council.